Marcus Shaffer Assistant Professor of Architecture. Prior to joining Penn State, Marcus was working towards the completion of his M.ARCH at the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech, where his graduate thesis was awarded the Graduate Program's Outstanding Design Research Award and an Excellence in Thesis Award. He is interested in the Machine in an architectural context-from the building machines, automatons, and "spiritual mechanisms" designed by the ancients, to the "mechano-pagan" influence of the Machine on Modern and Visionary Architecture in contemporary times. The conceptual basis for the Machine in Marcus's work is that it is an extension of our physical abilities, a record of our techno-material capabilities, and an indicator of our spiritual desiring. Marcus holds a BFA in Industrial Design from the Rhode Island School of Design, and prior to his Masters studies, worked as a designer of exhibitions and museum installations.